“Today & Tomorrow.
GENDER POLICY IN
REALITY AND PROGNOSES
Gender reveals human rights equality for man and woman in the society. Being in the process of formation formed since XIX century, feminism is a political trend, socio-political movement calling to fight for woman freedom, woman rights. Though historically inevitable, from humanism point of view feminism already now does not respond in full to human rights problem. Yet gender is both modern, and a scientific direction fully meeting the epoch requirement, human rights philosophy. Criticizing all basic cognitive and practical principles of the patriarchal civilization, by rejecting the new principles set forth by gender researches of the said civilization, the feminism theory has demonstrated them having rolled down to death. Gender theories are the latest scientific direction in this context.
right reflected also in the Constitutional Act "On State Independence of
Azerbaijan Republic", dated 18 October 1991. The National Parliament of
Characteristics of woman movement. Orders, decrees, decisions and resolutions adopted in our country as well as ratification of international legal acts on the gender policy create the basis for the legal provision on the ground of the gender equality in the society.
Exactly from this
point of view, after the
It is not
accidental that the urgency of the gender problem have found its reflection in
the following words on the face volume of the Convention "On the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women": "The full
and complete development of a country, the welfare of the world and the cause
of peace require the maximum participation of women on equal terms with men in
all fields." In the modern period renovations have been manifesting
themselves in all spheres of social-political life, including in the men-women
activities in the society, connected with basic changes taking place, first of
all, in the political system in the independent, democratic
Main two different opinions are included in the social-political analysis of the role of sexes in the social development. One of them views women as a social-demographic group, and the other - as having a determined social status, a big unity distinguished by its specific demographic characteristics, a rare social group. The second variant can be considered more acceptable, because woman is a really existing and empirically registered comparatively fully stable social group. They are active in public and political processes, production sphere, culture and in other fields inherent to human life. The XX-century history, especially our history (mainly the latest periods) proves the thesis "women are the object of policy" to be narrow-minded, even socially and morally completely worthless. In contrary, women who have practically gaining incomplete freedom a social force, women as its subject have increased their activity during the latest periods. This force can influence the historical movement, interferes with different means, accelerates or slows the social progress, make conflicts and or, creating conditions, solves them.
Last years, in spite of ideologically different ways of viewing, an intention to make all mutual steps in order to unite all fields attracts attention; platforms are being defined at the meetings organized on the scale of international forums, conferences, in order to adopt general decisions. Women have either restored broken for a long period as a result of the "cold war" and continuing mutual relations or made them stronger. They have become initiators and selfless representatives of the popular diplomacy, firm, experienced fighters:
The XX century has become a great century also in the life of Azerbaijani women. The Azerbaijani women have gained equal rights along with men in all spheres of social, economic, moral life and used their own creative possibilities to serve the society. And this is a stubborn fact too that in the Soviet period women were active more in material production spheres. But it's also true that the force of the "weak sex" was unjustly used in light and even heavy industry, in hard works in agriculture.
If we pay attention to the specificities of the women movement in the republic, it will become clear that the change of ideological values, the appearance of democracy that is ideals, on the stage is one of main important reasons activating the participation of women in the social-political processes. The development of the women movement has put an end on the absenteeism and indifference in women.
Absenteeism that is deviation from voting during elections of elective, representative organs and officials must be stopped. To allow absenteeism, a forced voting is applied in many countries: the speakers are fined, even arrested...
The Azerbaijani society is regulated mainly through traditional family system, obeying men-women roles sufficiently seriously determined "in formal way". In the family man's own place and woman's own position are respected. With regard to the family finance, a man is its main provider, and a woman assumes every-day-life work.
Place and role of sexes in political processes - In the period of transition
In the republic as one of the topical problems the woman issue gets confirmed in the formation of women organizations on the level of non-governmental organizations and also in the government as the State. As one of the leading forces of the society, by creating their own organizations, by becoming participants of social-political, public events, women also bear to a certain degree decisive functions in the country. Another necessary and important factor is the political passiveness of women, and in case of having an internal inclination to politicization, the discords from outside into "inside" in the political life. It can be possibly explained by different reasons. First of all, if we take the national mentality as a basis, in Azerbaijan where West and East meet, if the Azerbaijani women's half having western features, and the other half of the women being western, the other half eastern is exactly an initial appearance form, also historical roots, national habits and traditions are also in a certain sense characteristic. And the second reason, along with the kernel of the "humanistic" policy called "equality" of as we already mentioned the 70-year-long Soviet system, are the signs of being ruled from the center as "the Sovietized" indifference which is far from nationalism, inclinations to accept everything ready, to get alienated to events. The third reason, the political culture of individuals being one of main sign of the political activity, the fourth, the political regime and political structure, and the fifth, characteristic cases as obliteration of moral values in the politicization, and other similar numerous factors of influence can be shown.
When speaking about the political activity of the Azerbaijani woman, the influence of above-mentioned different reasons as a result find their reflection also in the processes going in the society. To our mind, from this view the objective situation is formation of the idea that "the man's place is the first" still inherent to mass consciousness in the society. In moral, social values, habits and traditions, in the formation of the world outlook the woman phenomenon has been perceived, comprehended in the way it is suggested to the theoretical consciousness. Though in our times situations characteristic to already known Soviet period have been cleaned off in many cases, radical changes have taken place in relations, social consciousness, the discrimination between sexes has been removed partially, still remain to a certain degree.
From the point of view of the woman's role, position and place, the radical change in the social structure of the society, such change of the social formation still stands on the old values of models of sex differences such as "strong" - "weak" in the renovating world. Exactly from this point of view, serious changes manifest themselves in behavioral contacts between sexes which play different roles in the society. In order not to be subjected to the attacks, pressures and reproaches, women as equal citizens of the society have to think in accordance to which political, moral standards they should build their behaviors. Also here there are certain conditions are in women's being Mother, a wife, a sister, tutor, a bearer of honor, a symbol of self-esteem, an embodiment of dignity. Naturally, it is a natural state. The opposite "strong" pole, from this point of view, is free in any of his movement, behavior and relation. And this was an initial rooted factor of the political passiveness in all spaces and times as a natural standard, and one the most important reasons of the woman's restriction is the oldness of her psychological world outlook. Though the image of the woman and policy, woman-politician, politicized woman is accepted a little bit narrow frame, today it is finding a wide place in our mentality. Also today it is a manifestation form of the renovation of the social consciousness. It is a factor conditioning the popularization of the participation of women in policy, her political activity.
Balance of Power / Equality in Politics -The symbol of a firm woman is very important for the renovation of the society, the global-range balance. How it can be that you create, educate a person for the society, but the person cannot participate in the governing of the society, or you should only fulfill orders in the frame of maternity function. Not obtaining full equality is one of social troubles of the society we represent. The model of sexes' interaction, behavior and equal activity in the society, public, political, social, psychological, ethic, cultural integration was balanced in the modern philosophical science under the name of "Gender Philosophy".
In the political sphere man - woman personalization, feminist movement are already not characteristic for the renovating society. The public interests, advantage principle of the problems make women solidarity relation necessary. And this forms individuals in their equal political forming; in their participation in the equal mechanism. To-day it is impossible to deny how much useful work women active in public organizations do for the society. Along with this, from the point of view of equality given, by the country's Constitution and international standards, the political activity of women aggressively attracts attention. We should again show certain reasons here: the woman as a personality does not want to stand on the top of the symbol of reproach, the sample of gossips, ill-intentioned exaggerations. She becomes passive against irrelevant personalized moral slander, insults, and lies with beating hints in the direction of rumoring about family-generation. But do the facts say? According to the official statistics, a major part of the population are women, a major part of people wishing to receive education are girls, at the moment of aggravation of political problems mothers bear the major part of pains on their shoulders, it is a woman who submits to material hardships, endures them, who is a sister, a wife, who holds high the family and mother land in the first place. In such a case also the factor of politicization of women, leadership, and political leadership-pace-making in the society should be placed in the minds as a usual case. The woman should be approached from the frame of the ability way, skill necessary for the work to be done, education, intellect, world outlook, and because of her sex origin. Let us note one important characteristic here that exactly in the renovating society changes are achieved on the ground of equality, equal solidarity. Individuals move in the determined direction from traditional living standards to new targets and positions, ideals. The emergence of new behavioral models, the formation of new demands from the above-mentioned dimensions lifts the activeness of individuals and increases its internal dynamics. And the provision of interests and benefits makes women actively join in politics. The politicization, the rising of the political activity of the women is an important condition in the development of the dynamics of the political equilibrium of processes in the society. It is an interesting situation that though the Azerbaijani women have entered all spheres of the society, yet again policy is considered to be the place of men, and the women's place - family-kitchen-education, and this is the indication of eastern mentality we mentioned above.
Let us show right here that when a man loses "the man's place", the woman is able to courageously come to the front. History proved it many times. As a researchers, though not being the supporter of feminists, we do not accept the woman slavish, subordination, slave form and to assume more responsibility, amenability, and consider right the constitutional equality only. However, the reality does not reflect this and now we are going to speak about it.
If the phrases Woman pace-making, Woman Khatun are considered from today prism point, it meets the irony "the old slogan of the old society". And in the Ancient Turks at all documentation work the opinion of the Khatun was categorically considered as basic when the names of Khaqan and Khatun were being written together. As writes Turkish researcher Nejdet Sevinj, "...in the Turkish peoples...the sovereign's injunction started only with the phrase of Khagan. The ambassadors of foreign states could not appear only before the Khaqan's presence, in the line of the reception of ambassadors the presence of Khatun together with the Khagan was obligatory.
Main factors of political activity. Being on the transition period, our life at the same is the period of carrying out of new reforms, the adoption of new laws, the liberation from old fears, stereotypes. The end of the 80-s and the beginning of the 90-s of the XX century can be characterized as a big change and overturns period. As a result of the weakening of the pillars of the totalitarian system, the authority created a new atmosphere. During many years the removal of the ruling party from governing arena, the formation of new organizations and parties, the democratization taking place in the public life put a deep trace. The changes conducted in the public life caused the formation of new parties in the republic. A big number of theses organizations and societies unite also women around themselves. To-day also women actively support the leading movements and organizations in the solving of emerged problems.
Another issue attracting the attention is that starting from small groups, organizations to big political parties and to the authorities of certain fields in the state structures the personal power of the women at all positions does not deny the possession of their main decisive influence in the social-political processes. The woman not interfering from the creative position with the society, even with family, we should acknowledge the truth, also today is appraised and stays far from reproach, criticism target. In such case the woman yet again in general is deprived from the possibility to be respected as a personality, an individual.
participation of women in the social-political processes is connected to a
number of important factors. First, the necessity to solve the problems piled
since many years drew the women as all society members to participate in the
new processes. Disregarding any contradictory character whatsoever, these
processes possess progressive movements regarding its essence. Second, the
woman movement widening through out the world has been manifesting its
influence. Now the imitative on saving the world from the dangerous nuclear
weapon has created an opportunity for the new generation to say its word. On
this process background, the women have obtained a possibility to openly
criticize the negative cases deeply rooted in the democratic, ecological, moral
arenas. Third, national revival, national self-cognition as well as
modernization process is going now in the life of each of the peoples of the
In the fight for restoration and strengthening of state independence in the republic hundred of thousands of women's springing into the political arena the influences occurring also in their behavior openly manifested themselves. Due to the absence of any political analyses and political agitation, the corresponding regulating mechanisms and direction forms being not determined, the said process has created undesirable situations thus consequent fundamental changes in life of some women.
Today a big engrossment of women's political activity going intensively has become an active factor in our modern life. Women already take an active part on the global level in the business of the UN, European Union, in social-political processes all over the world, in the management of states, in elections carried out in local administrative organs.
Chair-persons of NGOs and nearly the majority human rights societies in the republic are women.
Social-political protection - every woman's engagement in active political activity is conditioned by the position she takes in society due her social status, i.e. age, sex, origin, trade and marital status. The level of women politicization is regulated, first, by its unity of political-psychological mechanisms creating condition for active policy, on the other hand, by factors as rising of political activity.
In transition social values, relations inherent to the old regime stop working, renovations occur in social consciousness, acceptable and unacceptable changes are created in the social structure. In the period of absence of a new structure of society the system of values, possibly to say, has been fully learned. Exactly this has become a reason that women were subjected to crossing influences of old and new values creating in the opposite poles, the change of their social image; with this, their activity - behavioral way to be created by them has been changing. In the consciousness of women considered the main education pillar of the society, intentions to base on the moral values common to mankind have been increasing.
The weakness of social protection is one of factors hindering the active activity in the society. That is in the society the principles of a joint activity mechanism, long-term regulation of ethic values already make women as the majority of individuals think more about themselves, make them active. An active, interesting, conscientious behavior acts as its indication. Women's political activity in different forms, levels manifest themselves exactly from this point of view: - from the level of absolutely clear, right understanding ability, comprehension and realization of the interests of the sex she belongs to; At this point, depending on what purpose she sets to herself, use of what means and opportunities possible in future in order to achieve it, the way of perceiving and the way of interfering in processes in the society, the way of being able to realize events; mastering what political knowledge; depending on belonging to what political faith .
Politics and needs groups - though in the post Soviet period the society lived amidst material pressures, economic difficulties, this did not mean yet the existence of needs necessary for full involvement of all individuals, including women in politics. Naturally, if we are to give the description of mechanism of this process, they can be basically divided into two groups: difficulties jumping into arena in the fields of - first economic, moral and material needs and the second -political, cultural, etc.
The first group - internal need, i.e. if bears essence of personal interest principle, the second group external, i.e. needs directed on the common initiative results base. And all these can be clarified after determining full hierarchy of society. In accordance with this, i.e. improvement of systematic forms regulating social needs created from regulation of social status and roles. In such progress social principles of social activity will also be move toward to the development.
Is social-political thought of women studied?
International experience shows that a big need is felt for feminism concepts to be organized by researchers and application of the received results in real life. Issues considered important for researches are as follows: development way of political views and the place of women in the social-political life; women's thoughts about economy, market relations and woman management; political leadership of women and woman elite; women's social opinion and power institutions; women's electronic behavior and electoral companies; social protection and social guarantees of women in transient to market relations; social tension and women mass.
question rises, should women's social-political thought be studied? Woman as an
individual an independent subject and one of the main bearers of
social-political thought in the society. Western scientists many times proved
this idea by their researches. To bring an example, in the
In their social-political thoughts women act as subject of politics. As a public group they influence the social life, protect both national and specific woman interests, and as a result, achieve to increase their social political status. At the same time, being a traditional object of politics, women feel on themselves results of all its changes.
The conducted research show that women more precisely, unambiguously determine their position in family, everyday-life, production, cultural and social problems or in micro-objective relations of social-political thought. In the evaluation of political processes and their influences on our life, women unlike men occupy a more moderate place. It was not said in vain, "women are the balance of and men are intensifiers of civilization". The direction of evaluation of social-political opinion of women unlike men is more constructive and positive. Characteristic features as tolerance and mercy inherent in woman seem to manifest themselves so:
- woman's social-political opinion prefers evolutionary development of political and economic processes to revolutionary;
- woman's basic interests and - social needs : protection of family, care for children and relatives, a real provision to right to live, hope to tomorrow's life, social stability and social calmness are in her focus of attention;
- advantage and position issues come after the said-above; the same goes to representation in authority structures;
- to balance vote ration in legislative organs; at last, to occupy a prominent place in the political corridors